The field of planning can comprise a large variety of problems, from games, such as the Tower of London or Rush Hour that can be used to assess humans’ ability to plan or to test planning algorithms to dealing with large scale problems such as navigating through a labyrinth, planning a trip or developing a driver model. Solving planning problems can be considered from an optimal perspective (i.e., the task is to find an optimal plan or at least a good approximation) or from a cognitive perspective (where do humans systematically deviate from an optimal plan?).


  • Cognitive Driver Model: The model is fully implemented in ACT-R 6.0 and extends a previous driver model proposed by Salvucci (2006).
    Haring, K., Ragni, M., & Konieczny, L. (2012). Cognitive Model of Drivers Attention. In N. Rußwinkel, U. Drewitz, & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 275–280). Universitaetsverlag der TU Berlin.
  • Gestalt principles in Human Planning Behavior: The study investigates the influence of visual patterns on the planning process. Methods: Psychological experiment; eye tracking study; and formal analysis. Results: The findings indicate the influence of the so-called distracting clusters on the human reasoning process. These clusters can be explained by Gestalt effects.
    Bennati, S., Brüssow, S., Ragni, M., & Konieczny, L. (submitted). Gestalt Effects in Planning: Rush Hour as an example.
  • Reproducing Human Planning Behavior
  • Cognitive Complexity Measure Planning
  • Cognitive Planning: Tower of London